By Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Light only reaches to the top of this zone but animal life is quite abundant and varied. Globally the bathyal environment covers approximately 40 million sq. km. bases (in soil science). The neutral or alkaline constituents in the soil, notably calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Each soil has a theoretical maximum content of bases and the actual content is expressed as a percentage of this theoretical figure to express the degree of base saturation. A high base saturation, especially with calcium, generally promotes a neutral soil, with good structure, aeration, and fertility.
Beaufort Scale. A scale of wind speed based on easily observable indications such as tree movement and smoke. The scale ranges from 0 to 12 with the numbers and indicators as shown opposite. Benioff zone 31 Beaufort Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Calm Light air Light breeze Gentle breeze Mod. breeze Fresh breeze Strong breeze Near gale Gale Strong gale Storm Violent storm Hurricane Speed I knots) <1 Smoke rises vertically 1-3 Smoke or leaves indicates movement, otherwise almost calm 4-6 Wind felt on face, leaves rustle, etc.
Base level, along with climate and geology, is one of the independent variables that control the processes in a particular cycle of erosion. Changes in base level therefore produce fundamental changes in the geomorphological system, to the extent that a major base level change initiates a new cycle of erosion. If the land is raised relative to the sea, base level movement is negative; if vice versa, it is positive. The former tends to increase erosional activity, the latter to initiate deposition.
A Dictionary of Earth Sciences by Stella A. Stiegeler BSc (eds.)