By Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins
This quantity is a grammatical description of Bilinarra, an endangered Australian language. This paintings attracts on fabrics accrued over a 20-year interval from the final first-language audio system of the language, such a lot of whom have for the reason that kicked the bucket. distinct consciousness is paid to all facets of the grammar, with all examples supplied with linked sound documents.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory
The Bilinarra were semi-nomadic before Europeans arrived, travelling mostly within their traditional lands and subsisting on seasonally available animal and plant food. Some of the more prized meats were jiya ‘kangaroo (generic)’, jamud ‘bush turkey’, girrawa ‘goanna’ and yinarrwa ‘barramundi’. After the wet season many varieties of berry were in abundance, including muying ‘black plums’, ngamanburru ‘conkerberries’ and garrajgarraj ‘curry orange’. Local plants were also valued for their medicinal qualities.
1 Pre-contact history and the language situation As with other Australian Aboriginal groups, Bilinarra history begins with the Dreaming, a period of time in the indeﬁnable past where Dreaming creatures traversed the as-yet-unformed landscape laying down its features. These Dreaming creatures took on many forms: they were animals, humans or natural phenomena such as rain or lightning, and were responsible for the creation of hills, rocks, waterholes and clusters of trees. A number of Dreaming tracks criss-cross Bilinarra country, including the Nangangari women ‘a group of women of the Nangari subsection’, Lardaj ‘rough-tailed goanna’ (known locally as ‘little lizard’), Marlimarli ‘butterﬂy’ and Barrjirda ‘quoll’ (which is now extinct in this area).
These were most likely Ngarinyman or Bilinarra people (reported in Lewis 2012: 129). 10 This word is found in Jingulu (Bowern per. ). 11 These kinship words could be from Jaru or Nyininy which are similar to the Eastern Ngumpin languages (impressionistically – no dictionaries are available unfortunately), although Jaru and Nyininy words contain an additional –di ending. The suﬃx -rti has been observed on kinship terms in neighbouring languages including Warlpiri, Warlmanpa, Jaru, Mudburra and Walmajarri (Nash 1992).
A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory by Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins