By Malcolm Bolton (auth.)
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Additional resources for A Guide to Soil Mechanics
4. The first step along this way is to solve two-dimensional flow. We are then able to handle such problems as the flow of water into a long trench excavation or the leakage from a long canal or through a long dam. 7 and assume that there is no flow along the axis of the construction. These plane flow visualisations are responsible for the majority of flow predictions in civil engineering. / axis of long trench water removed from trench by pumping flow only in plane normal to ax is best vie w / of f low in section Figure 3.
To estimate this initial pressure, the engineer applied the most significant principle in the mechanics of soil, the effective stress concept. Most soils are composed of soil particles and voids filled with water: the deformation of the soil body is caused solely by rearrangements of the soil particles, and these are related solely to the stresses acting through the soil particles, which are known as the effective stresses. Considering any plane section through a homogeneous soil, the stress components perpendicular and parallel to the plane may be a and T respectively.
The quantity of water flowing between any two flowlines must, therefore, remain constant, q between [ 1 and f2, for example. Applying Darcy's law to a small part of the flow plane, then, which is so small that the flow unit can be considered rectangular (b x l) I::!. h. q = (1 x b)k-1 per channel per unit length where the area of flow is considered as one unit of length into the paper, multiplied by the average separation of the flowlines b. 9) So consider that water is flowing from one 'source' at constant excess head through a body of soil with set boundaries into a 'sink' at a lower constant excess head, so that each packet of water loses the same excess head H.
A Guide to Soil Mechanics by Malcolm Bolton (auth.)