By Vanja Orlans; Susan Van Scoyoc
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In Britain, Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911) worked on the development of tests to measure intelligence, while in France, Alfred Binet (1857–1911), also interested in the measurement of intelligence, focused on more complex levels of assessment and decision making such as those used by expert chess players. These developments formed part of the institutionalization of psychology, and the articulation of the specific rules of scientific experimentation. Danziger (1985) tracks different forms of the development of these rules, identifying different social relationships between researchers and researched in the Leipzig laboratory of Wundt and the Paris laboratory of Binet and his colleagues, and drawing attention to the social nature of knowledge construction.
The romantic movement raised the issue of freedom and will and the tensions between individual aspirations and social or political constraint as expressed by the well known statement of the philosopher Rousseau (1712–1778) that ‘[m]an is born free; and everywhere he is in chains’. These developments represented a reaction to rationalism and empiricism, and highlighted the importance of the ‘self’ and the power of imagination. qxp 11/18/2008 PHILOSOPHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 6:42 PM Page 31 31 supported by later philosophical developments through Kant, Hegel and later 19th century writers within the phenomenological and existentialist traditions.
This new era of postmodern thinking has created a culture of questioning and deconstruction of existing ideas which has posited itself as a new philosophy. This trend is evident in a large number of fields (Lyotard, 1984) focusing on art, architecture, and literature as well as psychology. The critique in psychology focuses on the sociology of knowledge and on the array of cultural and power processes on which knowledge production rests. For example, Parker et al. (1995) focus on mental health and psychopathology, highlighting the role of language as structuring both reason and unreason.
A short introduction to counselling psychology by Vanja Orlans; Susan Van Scoyoc