By Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau
Written through scientists from best institutes in Germany, united states and Spain who use those concepts because the middle in their medical paintings and who've an exact notion of what's appropriate for photovoltaic units, this article comprises concise and accomplished lecture-like chapters on particular examine methods.They concentrate on rising, really expert thoughts which are new to the sector of photovoltaics but have a confirmed relevance. notwithstanding, for the reason that new equipment have to be judged based on their implications for photovoltaic units, a transparent introductory bankruptcy describes the fundamental physics of thin-film sun cells and modules, supplying a advisor to the categorical benefits which are provided via every one person method.The number of topics is a consultant cross-section of these tools having fun with a excessive measure of visibility in fresh clinical literature. additionally, they care for particular device-related issues and contain a range of fabric and surface/interface research tools that experience lately confirmed their relevance. eventually, simulation strategies are awarded which are used for ab-initio calculations of proper semiconductors and for machine simulations in 1D and 2D.For scholars in physics, sturdy kingdom physicists, fabrics scientists, PhD scholars in fabric sciences, fabrics institutes, semiconductor physicists, and people operating within the semiconductor undefined, in addition to being compatible as supplementary examining in similar classes.
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In the following, we will brieﬂy discuss the main characteristics of these three technologies as well as the main challenges in future developments and how characterization of materials and devices can help to improve the devices. For those readers who desire a more detailed insight in the physics and technology of the different thin-ﬁlm solar cells, we refer to a number of books and review articles on the topic. The physics and particularly the fabrication of all types of thin-ﬁlm solar cells are discussed in Refs.
When the direction of the incoming light is randomized by a scattering interface somewhere in the layer stack of the thin-ﬁlm solar cell, part of the light will be guided in the solar cell absorber by total internal reﬂection. The percentage of light kept in the solar cell by total internal reﬂection increases with the refractive index, since the critical angle qc ¼ arcsinð1=nÞ becomes smaller. For light with a Lambertian distribution of angles, the reﬂectance of the front surface for light from the inside is Ðq ð1ÀRf Þ 0 c cos q sin q dq ð1ÀRf Þ Ri ¼ 1À ð1:8Þ ¼ 1À Ð p=2 n2 cos q sin q dq 0 Here, Rf is the reﬂectance at the front side of the absorber for normal incidence.
The substrate or superstrate provides mechanical stability. The functional layers are deposited onto the substrate or superstrate; thus it has to be thermally stable up to the highest temperature reached during the complete deposition process. The front contact and back contact layers have to provide the electrical contact of the solar cell to the outside world, that is, the layers need high conductivities and must make a good electric contact to the absorber layers. 6 requires doped contact layers.
Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells by Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau