By J. F. Nunn
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Additional info for Applied Respiratory Physiology. With Special Reference to Anaesthesia
Nalorphine or levellorphan) or by the use of non-specific analeptics. Opiates in high dosage will usually produce apnoea before consciousness is lost (see page 21 under Ondine's curse'). Sleep causes slight displacement of the Pco 2/ventilation response curve to the right with the degree depending upon the depth of sleep, estimates of P c o 2 elevation ranging from zero to 9 mm Pig. Response to hypoxia is unimpaired by sleep. This is fortunate since continued hyperventilation is essential for survival at altitude.
Oxygen breathing would also prevent the chemoreceptor drive but this did not prolong breath holding to the same extent as the nerve block. 40 BREATH HOLDING Lung Volume Breath-holding time is directly proportional to the lung volume at the onset of breath holding, other factors being constant. In part this is related to the onset of hypoxia, since an appreciable part of the total body oxygen store is in the alveolar gas (page 357). It seems likely that the effect of lung volume and its change is mediated by afférents arising from both chest wall and the lung itself.
Widdicombe (1961) compared the strength of the inflation reflex in eight species and found the reflex weakest in man. His method for the human subjects was to weight the bell of a spirometer connected to spontaneously breathing, lightly anaesthetized patients. Inflation to transpulmonary pressures of 7 - 1 1 cm H 2 0 did not produce apnoea lasting longer than 10 seconds, in contrast to the rabbit in which increases of transpulmonary pressure of 5 - 7 cm H 2 0 on two occasions killed rabbits by asphyxia during the prolonged apnoea that followed.
Applied Respiratory Physiology. With Special Reference to Anaesthesia by J. F. Nunn